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Concluding Remarks

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Chapter Summary

The Dhimmah system, though parts of its conditions with the standards of today have been discriminatory against non-Muslims, provides a clear example of protection of minorities. In recent centuries the Dhimmah system, by the name of Millet, governed the status of minorities in multi-religious areas under the Ottoman reign in parts of Eastern Europe and most areas of the Middle East and North Africa. Despite the advantages of the Muslim legal traditions of Dhimmah for minorities, their discriminatory aspects stand sharply in contrast with the main principle of human rights law, that is, the principle of non-discrimination. It is worth mentioning that the contemporary application of Dhimmah rules by Muslim states, whether in its positive aspects or in its discriminatory features, has been rarely linked to the requirements of Islam, Shariah or similar terms in official positions of the related states.

Keywords: Dhimmah system; human rights law; Muslim legal traditions; Muslim states; non-Muslims; religious minorities



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