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Chapter Summary

Considering the areas of inconsistency between Muslim legal traditions and human rights, some legislation related to apostasy was found generally to be in contradiction with the main principles of human rights, or at least restricting freedom of opinion, expression and religion. Considering the areas of contribution of Muslim legal traditions to human rights, the current application of the Dhimmah system by states provides a clear example of the protection of minorities' rights to identity, although parts of its conditions have been discriminatory. Most of Muslim legal traditions on rights of the child were evaluated as being consistent or even contributing to the modern standards of human rights. This is the concluding chapter of the book, which shares a common major problematic aspect in the incorporation of traditional hudood penal code, in the legislation of some Muslim states.

Keywords: Dhimmah system; human rights; Muslim legal tradition; penal code



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