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Chapter Summary

Liminal violence continued after the Schism and well into the modern period. This conclusory chapter highlights some of the evidence, most interestingly, after the events of 1378, the despoliation of the cells of the conclave increased in frequency. In the late fourteenth century, François de Conzié anticipated political fractioning in his papal interregnum ceremonial of the Empty See. He conveyed control of the pope's belongings to the Apostolic Chamber's camerlengo for the duration of the interregnum. The dual presence in Rome and Fondi of rotuli conclavis indicates without any doubt that by 1378 they already had a history, and came from Avignon. Pillaging the goods of the dead in his palace survived the early Middle Ages and lasted until the Schism and thereafter. It took place in 1378 Rome, 1398 Avignon, and 1529 Cortona. In the end, liminal violence was tied to rapports of authority and to political transitions.

Keywords: rotuli conclavis; 1378 Rome; 1398 Avignon; apostolic chamber; empty see; great western schism; interregna pillaging; liminal violence; papal interregnum; political transition



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