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Holy Frontiersmen? Twelfth- And Early Thirteenth-Century Monastic Colonisation And Socio-Economic Change In Polandand Scotland

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Chapter Summary

Revision of the traditional view of pioneering monasticism, especially Cistercian, began in the early 1980s, particularly in respect of developments in France. From the beginning of the twelfth century, reformed Benedictine and Augustinian monasticism began to be imported for the first time from predominantly Frankish western Europe into two ?peripheral' areas of apparently different socio-economic and cultural tradition: Scotland and Poland. In Poland, evaluation of the endowment of Cistercian abbeys appears, prima facie, to support the revision. The Polish and Scottish experience outlined in this chapter reveals great flexibility in approach and response in monastic resource-management regimes, with little evidence of either adherence to the artificial strictures imposed by the rules of the various orders or development of the supposedly distinctive approaches to estate organisation produced by the different orders so embedded in the traditional historiography.

Keywords: Cistercian; monastic colonisation; Poland; Scotland; Scottish monasteries



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