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Chapter Summary

With regard to one particular weapon, the crossbow, the conventual officials had to function as a collective as well. Canon 29 of the Second Lateran Council had prohibited the use of crossbows against Christians, particularly Catholics, under penalty of excommunication. The Templars' retrais state that the convent's arms and military equipment, regardless of whether they had been purchased, donated, or gained as booty, were at the marshal's disposal-except for the crossbows (arbalestres) which were to be kept by the preceptor of the land. The Hospitallers instituted a regular control mechanism with regard to their treasury, which ultimately led to a loss in prestige for the treasurer, because his work was more closely supervised than that of any other conventual official. The conventual officials' collective agency can be seen particularly well in the charters.

Keywords:Charter evidence; conventual officials; Hospitallers; leadership collective; Templars'



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