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Chapter Summary

At his ascent to the imperial throne in 610, Heraclius was confronted by a complex tissue of internal and external crises-the consequences of a poor economy, popular discontent following the unhappy years of Phokas' reign, civil war, and the Persian invasion under king Khusrau II Parviz in 609. Persian progress on the eastern front was facilitated by the anti- Chalcedonian masses as the people tended to prefer Persian to Byzantine supremacy. Heraclius' preoccupation with ecclesiastical reconciliation was relatively short lived. It lasted from 628 to 633, a period of peace between two campaigns against the Persians and the Arabs. Patriarch Sergius, the faithful companion of Heraclius for almost thirty years, died on 9 December 638. In describing the history of the Monothelite controversy, Eutyches of Alexandria identified Cyrus of Alexandria, Macarius of Antioch, and Honorius of Rome (protagonists of imperial Monothelitism) as Maronites.

Keywords:Alexandria; anti- Chalcedonian; Byzantine supremacy; Heraclius; imperial Monothelitism



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