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Chapter Summary

This is the final chapter of the book, which started with the story that described the rejection of distant imperial authority in Rome in 711, as well as with the assumption that the four media mentioned there played major roles in the indirect communication of authority between rulers and their remote subjects in the early Middle Ages. Hence, this analysis of the symbolic language of authority in the Carolingian world has focused on regular royal liturgy, royal charters, coinage, and the imagery of rulers. Yet, the concluding scrutiny of wider political contexts within which they operated suggests that they were not the only media in that process and, furthermore, that the relative importance of such media greatly differed across early medieval Europe. In the chapter, the author points to some wider implications that the book offers for the study of Carolingian society and medieval politics.

Keywords: Carolingian world; early medieval Europe; medieval politics; symbolic language



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