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Chapter Summary

This chapter considers transaction costs in the trade in Brazilian sugar and treats three main themes. The first is the port system and the ports themselves, since their size and efficiency affected the speed with which sugar could be delivered to markets. The second is the operating costs of shipping, which was one of the main expenses for merchants. These costs were mainly conditioned by the types of vessels used and the lengths of voyages. Finally, the chapter examines the ownership and supply of shipping, since the supply of ships contributed to the cost of transportation in general. Specifically for the Brazilian sugar trade, the demand for ships in the empire probably exceeded domestic supply. The chapter concludes by showing how foreign-built ships entered the Portuguese merchant marine and examines the patterns of ownership that made this possible.

Keywords: Brazilian sugar trade; costs of shipping; port system; Portuguese merchant marine; supply of shipping



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