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‘Old and new revolution’ (December 1905)

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Chapter Summary

In 'Old and New Revolution', Kautsky says the Russian Revolution could be compared to those in England and France, but, beyond superficial resemblances lay fundamental differences. The English Revolution was 'a local event'; the French Revolution ended in Napoleon's military regime; but the Russian Revolution promised 'to inaugurate an era of revolutions that will end with the dictatorship of the proletariat, paving the way for the establishment of a socialist society'. The rising of Paris Commune was the revolt of a single city and was suppressed within a few weeks. The Russian revolution extended from the Arctic Ocean to the Black Sea and the Baltic to the Pacific, and has already continued for a year. In previous revolutions, the peasantry ranked next to the petty bourgeoisie as the most important revolutionary element. In Russia, next to tsarism, it is the large landed estates that paid the bill of the revolution.

Keywords: bourgeoisie; English; French; Old and New Revolution; peasantry; proletariat; Russian; tsarism



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