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10. Africa

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Chapter Summary

Africa, the second largest continent, has nearly twice as many states as Asia. Most of Africa's international boundaries were drawn by European governments before 1914. The early invasions of Africa occurred along the Mediterranean coast from Arabia. First the nomadic Hyskos invaded Egypt and held sway from 1730 BC to 1570 BC. In 1918 the victorious powers were allocated mandates over Germany's African colonies. Geometric boundaries consist of straight lines, arcs of circles and median lines. Maling has observed that since a chart or map is based on a projection, the nature of a straight line measured on it depends on the projection's mathematical properties. Ethiopia, Liberia and Morocco were the only African states that engaged with European governments in delimiting all or some of their boundary.

Keywords: Africa; geometric boundaries

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