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Turkey and the EU

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Chapter Summary

The majority in Europe questions whether Turkey is European and above all if it is fit for membership because of perceived economic, political, and cultural differences. This chapter provides a few observations and some qualified generalizations based on major events that have been redefining Turkey's EU membership prospects since the 1963 Ankara Treaty. It begins with a narrative of the European enlargement and a brief history of Turkish-EU relations, followed by a discussion of developments since Turkey's application for full membership in 1987. Highlighting principal aspects of the customs union since 1996, the chapter ends with a summary of the events before the 2004 Brussels Summit and an analysis of its outcomes. The study found that trade diversion among Turkey's suppliers would take place only with respect to the United States, and estimates based on changes in market shares favored the EEC.

Keywords: 1996; EEC; European; Turkish-EU relations; United States



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