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The Muslim Public Divided (Approx. 1930–1960s)

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Chapter Summary

This chapter discusses the most important ones before pursuing the historical narrative of South Asian Muslims in the context of the Muslim League. The Ahmadiyya can be considered one of the first local movements that soon evolved into a trans-national one operating outside India - and Pakistan - with hundreds of mosques built all over the world especially in South Africa, South East Asia and Europe. The Ahl-e Hadith had changed the study of prophetic tradition into a major normative discourse, differing from those adhering to a school of law, such as the Hanafis. The Tablighi Jamaʿat (Missionary Community"), by living hadith" and using a variety of missionary methods, was to become one of the most visible religious movements world-wide. In 1931, shortly after Muhammad Iqbal made his plan public, the physicist ʿInayat Allah Khan al-Mashriqi (1888-1963) founded the paramilitary movement called Khaksar (the Humble) in the Punjab.

Keywords: Ahl-e Hadith; Ahmadiyya; India; Khaksar; Muslim League; Pakistan; Tablighi Jamaʿat



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