Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here


Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this chapter

+ Tax (if applicable)

Chapter Summary

The accommodation of non-Arab polytheists into the Muslim taxonomy corresponded to conversion of non- Muslims in order to participate in a global Muslim horizon. Indigenous culture became Islamicated and Islamic religion indigenised, but what happened in most cases was probably a mixture of both. The creation of Pakistan as the embodiment of a Muslim majority state distinct from a Hindu majority state seems to anticipate that the latter (orthodoxy) won the day and that an homogenous Muslim identity emerged - on either side of the border. The tussle between ʿarab and ʿajam, however, was decided in favour of the latter, when non-Arabs could boast the only functioning Muslim Sultanate East of Baghdad. Personal unions between Hindus and Muslims were common; Prophet Muhammad came to be seen as an avatar of Hindu gods.

Keywords: ʿajam; ʿarab; Hindus; Muslim; Pakistan; Prophet Muhammad



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Islam in South Asia — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation