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Afterword

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Chapter Summary

The accommodation of non-Arab polytheists into the Muslim taxonomy corresponded to conversion of non- Muslims in order to participate in a global Muslim horizon. Indigenous culture became Islamicated and Islamic religion indigenised, but what happened in most cases was probably a mixture of both. The creation of Pakistan as the embodiment of a Muslim majority state distinct from a Hindu majority state seems to anticipate that the latter (orthodoxy) won the day and that an homogenous Muslim identity emerged - on either side of the border. The tussle between ʿarab and ʿajam, however, was decided in favour of the latter, when non-Arabs could boast the only functioning Muslim Sultanate East of Baghdad. Personal unions between Hindus and Muslims were common; Prophet Muhammad came to be seen as an avatar of Hindu gods.

Keywords: ʿajam; ʿarab; Hindus; Muslim; Pakistan; Prophet Muhammad

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