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Muslim Heterogeneity. Margins Becoming Centres Of Muslim Power (Approx. 1300–1500)

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Chapter Summary

In the years 1363-1415, Timur conquered Turkey, Syria and areas in North India. The ensuing Muslim political heterogeneity and the evolution of several competing centres of Muslim power were shaped among other factors, by the activities of merchants and various Sufi orders. The breakup of the once centralised Delhi Sultanate into many independent power centres was accompanied by a shift in the power of the Sufi orders as well. This chapter looks at the processes and levels of heterogeneity in which Muslim margins became centres of regional power after the Delhi Sultanate, from the North to the East to the South, on the eve of Mughal conquest. The first Sultan of Kashmir was a Hindu convert to Islam. Following a palace revolt, he was succeeded by Shah Mir from Swat. The inhabitants of Gujarat, Hindus, Jains and Zoroastrians were well acquainted with Arab Muslim traders.

Keywords: Delhi Sultanate; Gujarat; Hindus; Islam; Kashmir; Muslim political heterogeneity; Muslim power; North India; Sufi



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