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From Universal Dominion To Principalities (Approx. 1650–1800)

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Chapter Summary

The politics of Pax Mughalica" had already demanded further concession in favour of local landowners and middlemen. On the political level, things were getting increasingly difficult to manage with different forces challenging the Mughals. One of these challenges came from the Marathas of South, the encounter with which was often mistakenly understood, in terms of Islamisation. Islamic teaching, which closely connected South Asia with the rest of the Islamic world, had been reformed in terms of its content but the stress was on the so-called rational sciences. In Aurangabad in the Deccan, immigrant Turani Sufis were locked in contest with local Sirhindis settled there. Aurangzeb was succeeded in 1707 by his eldest son, Muʿazzam, the Bahadur Shah, a man more moderate than his father in religious matters. The Maratha wars had already had a harsh effect on the empire, affecting the regime's ability to enforce law and order.

Keywords: Aurangzeb; Islamic world; Islamisation; Maratha wars; Mughals; Pax Mughalica; South Asia; Sufis



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