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1985-1991: National Reawakening and the Restoration of Independence

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Chapter Summary

Apart from the European Union (EU)'s unilateral initiatives to support the transition of the Baltic States and the bilateral relationship on the basis of the European affairs (EAs), the legal framework of EU relations with the Baltic States before EU accession also entailed a clear multilateral dimension. The Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) Terms of Reference explicitly mention the European Commission as one of its members. In the case of the CBSS, the Commission acted without involvement of the Council, which excludes Article 300 (4) EC as the legal basis for the Commission's action. Accordingly, the CBSS only stepped up the level and visibility of its activities from 1994 onwards, in a period when the EU accession negotiations with the Nordic countries were nalised and bilateral agreements between the EC and other Baltic Sea States, most notably Russia and the Baltic republics, were concluded or schedule.

Keywords: Baltic states; CBSS; European Commission; Nordic countries

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