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Remaining Challenges in Baltic-russian Relations

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Chapter Summary

The European Court of Justice is exclusively competent to determine the scope and application of association agreements in the Community legal order. In the domestic legal order of the associated countries, on the other hand, the status of the agreements depends on the principles for application of international treaties in those countries. Essentially, a distinction has to be drawn between countries adopting monist or dualist approaches to the relationship between international and national law. In the Estonian legal literature, there was a general acceptance that specific articles of the European Affairs (EA) fulfilled the criteria for direct applicability in the Estonian legal order. EU affairs were, therefore, not only dealt with as a part of the Baltic States' foreign policy but rather became a core issue on the domestic political agenda.

Keywords: Baltic states; Estonian legal order; European affairs (EA); international treaties



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