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The Legal Framework of Eu Accession Negotiations

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Chapter Summary

Two months after the proclamation of Soviet republics in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, the German Freikorps entered Latvia and defeated the Bolshevik forces with the support of Latvian nationalists and Baltic Germans. The Estonians fought their own 'war of independence' and managed to beat the Soviets with the support of Finnish volunteers. Meanwhile, Lithuanian volunteer regiments managed to drive the poorly supplied Red Army out of Lithuania. With the end of the Russian civil war and the conclusion of peace treaties between Soviet Russia and each of the Baltic States, the Allied powers officially recognized the independence of Estonia and Latvia in January 1921. Due to the problems surrounding Vilnius, the de jure recognition of Lithuania was delayed until December 1922. However, the recognition of the independent Baltic republics was largely the result of external circumstances rather than the achievement of a clear policy objective.

Keywords: Baltic independence; Baltic republics; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Soviet Russia



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