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Chapter Summary

The Amsterdam Treaty, which entered into force 1 May 1999, provided for a new instrument to strengthen the European Union (EU)'s relations with Russia. According to the new Article 13 TEU, "the European Council can decide on Common Strategies to be implemented by the Union in areas where the Member States have important interests in common". Accordingly, Russian attempts to start consultations on the possible negative impact of the Union's eastward expansion have always been dispelled by the axiomatic statement that both Russia and the EU would bene t from enlargement. The outcome of the Kaliningrad and Partnership and Co-operation Agreement (PCA) extension dilemmas clearly illustrates the rather pragmatic nature of EU-Russia relations. Accordingly, the subordination of Baltic-Russian relations within the wider EU-Russia Strategic Partnership creates a new political context for dealing with the historic sensitivities.

Keywords: Amsterdam treaty; European Union (EU)-Russia relations; Kaliningrad; Partnership and Co-operation Agreement (PCA) extension



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