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Chapter Summary

The question of Kaliningrad transit clearly illustrates the particular role of Lithuania in the development of EU-Russia relations. In combination with the regular tensions between Moscow and Estonia and Latvia regarding the treatment of Russian-speaking minorities or the conclusion of border agreements, it is obvious that EU membership of the Baltic States adds a new dimension to the EU-Russia relationship. Within the new political and legal context after enlargement, the main challenge for the Baltic States is, therefore, to find a balance between the deep-seated historical preoccupations vis-à-vis Russia, on the one hand, and the need for pragmatic co-operation on the other. The examples of the Lithuanian and Latvian cases before the ECtHR clearly illustrate the continuous challenges related to the Baltic States' transition from Soviet republics to EU Member States.

Keywords: Baltic states; Estonia; EU-Russia relations; Latvia; Lithuanian; Soviet republics



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