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Chapter Summary

New Christians of Jewish, African or Amerindian origin suffered for centuries from their being positioned by the dominant majority and other minorities as ?in-between' yet also cultivated on their own such in-betweeness as a defensive barrier, a privileged space, an unsharable uniqueness. To borrow terminology from Hernández, they were ?maybe' Christians, ?maybe' Spaniards, ?maybe' Whites. Though many, perhaps even most individuals from these groups no longer practiced many or any particulars of their traditions, the entire group remained, seemingly permanently, ?designated' as Jews, Africans or Amerindians. Characterizing "Black-Jewish" relations in the seventeenth century almost inevitably retrojects today's socio-economic and political tensions. As two groups of intermediaries or go-betweens that served vastly different purposes for the empires, Judeoconversos and Afroiberians stood very much in conflict, often quite direct, with one another. Added to this was a very real religious and theo-political divergence.

Keywords: Afroiberians; Amerindians; Black-Jewish relations; Christians; Judeoconversos; religious divergence; theo-political divergence



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