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Culpability – Senior Leaders Have Dirty Hands

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Chapter Summary

In 17th century Europe three traumatic wars brought about significant changes in the concept of officership even though commissions continued to be purchased for some time afterwards. The principalities and political units that comprised Europe during the mid 16th to mid 17th centuries had been involved in armed conflict for almost a century, the Eighty Years War (1568-1648) and Thirty Years War (1618-1648), on the continent, and the English Civil Wars in the Isles. Evidence against the Nuremberg defendants included copies of orders, directives, and memorandums they had signed or initialed, witnesses, affidavits, and, for the first time, film footage. The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) reaffirmed the principles established in the post WWII criminal tribunals. Although this chapter focuses on the American experience in Iraq, it pertains to commissioned officers around the world.

Keywords: English Civil Wars; Europe; ICTY; Iraq; Nuremberg



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