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Kerma Domination In Lower Nubia In The Second Intermediate Period (1650–1550bc)

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Chapter Summary

During the Twelfth Dynasty immigrants from Syria-Palestine settled in great numbers in the eastern Delta. In the advanced Thirteenth Dynasty Egypt withdrew from Lower Nubia. The withdrawal was determined partly by the decline of the centralized rule in Egypt and partly by the northern advance of the Kerman kingdom which succeeded apparently without much armed conflict. A part of the Egyptian expatriate officials stayed on in Lower Nubia after the withdrawal of the Thirteenth Dynasty, entered the service of the kings of Kush, and continued to work in the local administration and participate in the long-distance trade between Kerma, the Hyksos and the Theban kingdom. Kamose did what was essential for the completion of Egypts consolidation when he drove out the Kerman occupiers from Lower Nubia and secured the access to Nubian gold.

Keywords: Hyksos; Kerma; Lower Nubia; Theban kingdom; Thirteenth Dynasty Egypt



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