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Politics And Religion In The Philosophy Of The Enlightenment I: Hobbes, Spinoza, Locke And Rousseau

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Chapter Summary

This chapter brings back to mind the long history of the relation of politics and religion, a history that was still very much alive during the time of Enlightenment, and can be traced back as far as biblical times. By describing the preconditions of the contents, the form and the consequences of the social contract in the writings of Hobbes, Spinoza, Locke, and Rousseau in the chapter, the relationship between reason, politics, and religion or state (commonwealth) and church and freedom of religion can be summarised in short and comprehended properly. "The Kingdom of God by Nature" is the title and subject of the last chapter (XXXI) of part II in Leviathan, which deals with the relation of politics and religion from the perspective of collective existence after concluding the social contract. In some respects, there is a certain resemblance between Hobbes and Spinoza.

Keywords: Commonwealth; Enlightenment; Hobbes; Leviathan; Locke; Rousseau; Spinoza



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