Cookies Policy

This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

I accept this policy

Find out more here


Brill’s MyBook program is exclusively available on BrillOnline Books and Journals. Students and scholars affiliated with an institution that has purchased a Brill E-Book on the BrillOnline platform automatically have access to the MyBook option for the title(s) acquired by the Library. Brill MyBook is a print-on-demand paperback copy which is sold at a favorably uniform low price.

Access this chapter

+ Tax (if applicable)

Chapter Summary

Apart from a few exceptional references to female freestone masons in the Middle Ages, and an even smaller number of incidental initiations of women in the early 18th century, Freemasonry is so far an exclusively male phenomenon. In 1774, the Grand Orient de France officially recognised the adoption lodges and gave them new regulations. The men who were members of the associated male lodge had access to the adoption lodge, which made the latter automatically mixed, even though it initiated only women. After the French Revolution in 1789, masonic activity in France, including that of adoption lodges, came to a halt, to be resumed only in 1800. During the second World War, women in large parts of the world, including Europe and North-America, discovered that they could run their affairs quite well, even when their men were at the front.

Keywords: France; Freemasonry; Grand Orient de France ; male lodge; Middle Ages; second World War



Can't access your account?
  • Tools

  • Add to Favorites
  • Printable version
  • Email this page
  • Recommend to your library

    You must fill out fields marked with: *

    Librarian details
    Your details
    Why are you recommending this title?
    Select reason:
    Women’s Agency and Rituals in Mixed and Female Masonic Orders — Recommend this title to your library
  • Export citations
  • Key

  • Full access
  • Open Access
  • Partial/No accessInformation