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Hippocrates As Galen's Teacher

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Chapter Summary

Starting from the frescoes of the cathedral of Anagni which present an obvious relationship between Hippocrates as Galen's teacher and the medieval image of man's place in the universe dominated by the number four, this chapter returns to the origins of this quaternary theory in Hippocratic medicine with the four humors, then follows its evolution in Galen and finally into late Greek and Byzantine medicine where the quaternary division will have an unprecedented extension, with the four temperaments. A new piece of evidence from this late period attributed to Hippocrates appears as the veritable source of Latin Letter attributed to Vindicianus. Therefore, contrary to what was believed until now, the doctrine of the four temperaments was not elaborated first in a Latin form. Throughout its history, the quaternary theory will remain connected to Hippocrates, but the image and teaching of the Father of Medicine will change as the theory evolves.

Keywords: Byzantine medicine; Father of Medicine; Galen's teacher; hippocrates; late Greek medicine; quaternary theory; Vindicianus



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