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Chapter Summary

Rituals played an important part in the establishment of authority at the Studio Pisano and the Studio senese. However, rituals also encouraged the disorder which they tried to control. The rituals can be divided into two main types: academic and non-academic. The academic includes student initiation rites (spupillazione), the examination process, and the creation of the rector of the student-university. The non-academic focuses on Carnival and involves masquerades, bullfights, river battles, and jousts. Before analysing the academic and non-academic rituals associated with the Studio Pisano and the Studio senese, this chapter discusses the two main categories into which they fall: rites of passage and rites of violence. Examination processes are of four stages: presentation of the graduand, assignment of examination texts or puncta, the private examination, the public Examination. The chancellor of the student-university read out the statutes regarding the election of the rector.

Keywords: academic rituals; carnival; non-academic rituals; student-university; violence



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