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Manichaean Time-Management: Laymen Between Religious And Secular Duties

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Chapter Summary

The believer of any religion is obliged to perform a multitude of duties. Religious commandments regulate the ethical conditions of his life and call upon him to perform religious services. Manichaean ethics demanded from the believers to keep the so-called "three seals": of the mouth, of the hands, and of the lap. The Manichaean parishes had a hierarchical structure, and there existed a clear division of tasks between the two main groups of this community: the clerics (Elect) and the laymen (Hearers). The parallels between the Manichaean instructions and the Zoroastrian ones are nevertheless striking enough to conclude a connection between both sets of precepts. However, in modern Zoroastrianism we do not find a time-management based on a three-part division.

Keywords: clerics; laymen; Manichaean; Manichaean; religious services; secular duties; Zoroastrianism



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