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Early American Colonial Rule In The Philippines And The Construction Of "Filipino" And "Chinese" Identities

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Chapter Summary

This chapter discusses the different factors in the early twentieth century that brought about the homogenization and reification of &t;Chinese&t; and &t;Filipino&t; ethnic identities. It explains three main factors: are American imperialism and anti- Chinese racist policies; Chinese nationalism (in China and the Philippines); and Filipino nationalism. It tries to show how the combination of American racist policies (adopting or building up on earlier Spanish policies), imperial ambitions, Chinese nationalisms in China and the Philippines, as well as Filipino nationalism and efforts at nation-building contributed to the creation of distinct, territorially-based, and increasingly dichotomous &t;Filipino&t; and &t;Chinese&t; identities. It was during the first three decades of the twentieth-century that we find the beginnings of both a political (national) and cultural demarcation between the "Chinese" and the "Filipinos".

Keywords: American imperialism; anti- Chinese racist policies; Chinese nationalism; Filipino identities; Philippines



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