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The Chinese Merchants In Turn-Of-The-Twentieth-Century Manila: Precursors Of Modern Chinese Transnationalism In The Philippines

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Chapter Summary

This chapter attempts to provide additional factors, with a special focus on those practices that reflected the abilities of the Chinese merchants to employ flexible and border-crossing strategies. An overview of Spanish commercial policy in the Philippines in the nineteenth century would show that the colonial government attempted to do the following: 1) expand Philippine trade; 2) develop internal Philippine resources; 3) develop closer ties with Spain through trade; 4) protect and encourage Philippine industry; 5) provide favorable treatment of Spanish goods; 6) encourage Spanish and Philippine business; and 7) encourage Spanish and Philippine shipping. In the nineteenth century, the most important new role the Chinese played was that of commercial agent, or middleman. Wickberg lists certain factors that helped make the Chinese become successful, e.g., liberalized travel and residence laws, access to credit, effective organization, patronage, as well as virtues of hard work and low overhead.

Keywords: Chinese merchants; Chinese middlemen; Chinese transnationalism; Philippines; Spanish commercial policy



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