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Masculinising Missions-Consequences And Departures

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Chapter Summary

What did the increased emphasis on Muscular Christianity/pioneer masculinity really 'mean'? How does it relate to the expansion of women's roles within foreign missions that has been observed at about the same time? Do they signal a male 'back-lash' in the face of female advances? Or can they be said to represent a more general social change and a re-organisation of the gender order within the Protestant missions taking place at this time? In order to answer such questions this chapter establishes the social locus of these forms of manhood. A number of scholars have pointed out that both Muscular Christianity and the image of pioneer masculinity were types of manhood to be found (or at least cherished) predominantly within elite and/or middle-class circles, used to establish male social hegemony in late nineteenth-century society.

Keywords: manhood; muscular christianity; nineteenth-century society; pioneer masculinity



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