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Chapter Summary

The Chishtīs considered samāʿ to be an important medium for connecting with the spiritual realms. In fact, practicing samāʿ has been one of the distinguishing tenants of the Chishtī order. The early Chishtī scholars esteemed ʿAyn al-Quḍāt and Aḥamad Ghazzālī for their discussion of samāʿ as a form of anamnesis or recollection of the instance of the covenant as a theophanic experience. Samāʿ as a Muslim spiritual practice was taken to India by mystics from other lands. Juxtaposed against Ibn Abī al-Dunyā, Robson presents Aḥamad Ghazzālī and his manifesto in defence of music, Bawāriq al-Ilmāʿ. In conclusion, ʿAyn al-Quḍāt and the mystics of his milieu practiced samāʿ with the understanding that the encounter with Satan was an important stage in reaching true faith in God. Samāʿ was an opportunity to meet and greet Satan, the companion who could tempt mystics astray.

Keywords: ʿAyn al-Quḍāt; Aḥamad Ghazzālī; Ibn Abī al-Dunyā; Muslim spiritual practice; samāʿ



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