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Women's Lives

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Chapter Summary

This chapter focuses mainly on classical texts to describe women's lives. The description of women at home makes it clear that as long as they receive maintenance wives are expected to stay home at all times. They should go out only with the permission of their husbands and if they go out without it they are guilty of nushūz. An ʿawra is the term used to refer to the parts of the bodies of both men and women that modest dress is expected to cover in public. In the classical period, the Ḥanafīs continue to have the most inclusive or possibly lenient view of women's witnessing. For all other cases such as those concerning marriage, divorce, agency or bequests, regardless of whether property is involved, two women equal one man.

Keywords: ʿawra; divorce; marriage; nushūz; women's lives



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