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Decisive Conflict(s)

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Chapter Summary

The battles of Actium and Alexandria saw monarchy return to Rome, with Augustus as sole ruler. Together they form one of the most decisive turning points in world history: one battle decided the war (Actium), the other ended it (Alexandria). The ideology of the battle, the 'myth of Actium', has always been a matter of scholarly dispute. The ending of the civil wars must include Actium, as part of the triumviral assignment. The accomplishment of the assignment was vital for Octavian. The standard perception of the war against Antonius and Cleopatra amongst scholars is that the war was declared on Cleopatra, not Antonius, and that the ideology of the regime tried to conceal that Actium was also a civil war.

Keywords: Actium; Alexandria; civil war; Cleopatra; Octavian



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