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Mapping The Redefinition Of Belonging In Europe By , And

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Chapter Summary

Language and civic orientation tests are key features of the policy agendas of many European Union Member States and European Union. Although the modalities of integration tests and courses vary among the Member States, their introduction and the accompanying official discourses confirm the changing relationship between legal status, integration and political belonging. The chapter examines the introduction and implications of civic integration programmes in nine Western and Eastern European countries. It shows that while in the past the integration of newcomers was the main goal of multifarious processes of socio-political incorporation, in the new millennium it has been closely aligned with migration policy imperatives. Accordingly, integration tests are not simply citizenship tests, that is, requirements attached to gaining formal political inclusion into the citizenry, but are also migration tests. The latter are administered both internally, in the countries of destination, as well as externally, in the countries of origin.

Keywords: citizenship; civic orientation; European countries; European Union; integration tests; language; migration policy; newcomers



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