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Chapter Summary

Grammaticalization refers to the study of both how lexical items come to serve grammatical functions and how these grammatical items then develop to express new grammatical functions. In this chapter some consideration is given to the more basic phenomena of grammaticalization, i.e., words that develop grammatical functions. The development from lexeme to morpheme involves what has been called a "cline", in which content words develop into grammatical words, then into clitics, and finally into inflectional affixes. The chapter discusses some of words attested in the Aramaic of Daniel that have undergone the first stage of grammaticalization, and have become auxiliary verbs. In the Aramaic of Daniel, several lexical items have acquired auxiliary functions, including כהל ,יכל ,הוה ,איתי , and עתיד.

Keywords: Aramaic of Daniel; auxiliaries; grammaticalization



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