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LXX-Amos: Literal Or Free Translation?

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Chapter Summary

After surveying the criteria or categories for literalism in ancient translations that have been proposed by James Barr and Emanuel Tov, this chapter introduces two main approaches used to determine literalism, the statistical approach and the more syntactical approach of the so-called Finnish School. Then it presents an overview of the application of Tov's criteria for literalism to the text of LXX-Amos. LXX-Amos is very close to its Vorlage in "word order". Second, the "quantitative representation" of the source-text in the translation is fairly close, with few omissions and quite a few additions. Furthermore, the translator was not concerned about always representing the constituent elements in his source text. Also, although the translator often stereotyped word equivalents, there is much evidence in LXX-Amos that the translator was not concerned about consistently using stereotyped word equivalents.

Keywords: Emanuel Tov; James Barr; literalism; LXX-Amos



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