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Chapter Summary

The English consuls in the provinces of the Ottoman Empire, which were established chiefly in the major ports of the eastern Mediterranean and Aegean seas, had unusually important responsibilities. The appointment of the consuls in the Levant by a trading company made them something of an exceptional breed, especially after the middle of the seventeenth century. The consuls were generally merchants themselves, although as compensation for the time and energy devoted to their consular duties they were permitted to supplement their incomes by charging 'consulage', a small duty on the goods moving through their factories. As with the dragomans, Levantines of many descriptions loomed large among the English consuls, although Anglo-Levantines were a much larger proportion of them. Political considerations had been one of the main reasons for the expansion in the number of consular posts in the Levant in the middle decades of the nineteenth century.

Keywords: Anglo-Levantines; English consuls; levant company; Ottoman Empire



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