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U.S. Public Diplomacy: Pre-9/11

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Chapter Summary

This chapter reviews the evolution of public diplomacy from its earliest days as an official government function up until the time of 9/11. The review provides important context for anticipating public diplomacy's future, illustrating the first three of four distinct phases in American public diplomacy's history. This historic review illustrates both the mercurial nature of American public diplomacy's growth and development and the uncertainty of its fate. The first phase-"The War Phase"-took place in the first half of the 20th century during the First and Second World Wars when U. S. leaders looked to public diplomacy as a psychological weapon of war that complemented American military forces. The long second phase-"The Anti-propaganda Phase"-occurred during the Cold War, in which the nation was engaged in an ideological struggle against the Soviet Union. The third phase-"The Peace Phase"-which followed the end of the Cold War.

Keywords: anti-propaganda phase; peace phase; public diplomacy; war phase



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