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Chapter Summary

Agricultural produce is hardly ever consumed without first undergoing some sort of slight or radical transformation and it is industry that is responsible for the modification of raw materials, products of the earth or minerals, and the transformation of these to meet the requirements of men. Three main types of industrial organisation are found in the past. The three main types are: domestic industry, crafts, and centralised industry. The characterising feature of domestic industry is that the producer and the consumer are one and the same; that is the family which produces is also the family which consumes the goods. In the 13th century, European industrial geography was considerably different from that of three centuries before. Slow progress in urbanisation, however, can take place also when labour productivity in the primary sector is diminishing.

Keywords: crafts; European industrial geography; industry; labour productivity; urbanisation



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