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Chapter Summary

This bibliography section presents the list of reference books and articles that occur in this book titled Pre-Modern European Economy. The most striking feature for the historian analysing the European economy of the millennium preceding modern growth is the simultaneous effect of contradictory forces: the forces of decline and the forces of growth. The forces of decline are to be found particularly in the rural world, where resources and techniques change slowly in relation to the increasing population, whereas the forces of growth, and their dynamic effects, prevail in the cities, in the shops and on the seas. The interaction between the forces of decline and the forces of growth was well known to classical economists. In their opinion, the wealth of a country depended on the stock of natural resources, on capital, labour and technology.

Keywords: forces of decline; forces of growth; pre-modern European economy



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