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Chapter Summary

This index is the list names and terms that occur in this book titled Pre-Modern European Economy. The most striking feature for the historian analysing the European economy of the millennium preceding modern growth is the simultaneous eff ect of contradictory forces: the forces of decline and the forces of growth. The European pre-modern economy was a dualistic economy where, until about 1800, decreasing returns in agriculture were stronger than the increasing returns in industry and trade. Increasing returns began to profoundly influence the course of the economy from the first decades of the 19th century. Th e interaction between the forces of decline and the forces of growth was well known to classical economists. In their opinion, the wealth of a country depended on the stock of natural resources, on capital, labour and technology.

Keywords: European economy; forces of decline; forces of growth



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