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Chapter Summary

This chapter begins by discussing the world population and the European population, and then goes on to explain the demographic model, the death rate, and the birth rate. Over a period of two centuries (1650-1850), world population doubled, determining unprecedented pressure on the agriculture in Europe and throughout the world. Since the rate of population growth from the late Middle Ages onwards was higher in northern than in southern Europe, the demographic balance was shifting from South to North. We see now that both in Europe and worldwide the population increased four to five fold during the period between 900 and 1800. If product per capita in agriculture, industry and services had increased at the same rate, the gross product of Europe and the world could have risen four to five times as well.

Keywords: birth rates; death rates; demographic balance; European population; world population



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