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Assessing The Impact Of Gender Ideology And Sexuality In The Historical Pastoral And Pedagogical Relationship In Nineteenth-Century United States

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Chapter Summary

Just as in the pastoral relationship, the segregation of the sexes did not eliminate the intrusion of a sexual tension into the religious schooling of the students, but instead served to remind both faculty and students of gender difference and sexuality. This chapter analyzes the tensions and contradictions with which historical actors contended in shaping their religious and social identities. The author shows how some nineteenth-century Quaker men and women performed their negotiations between a very liberal theological stance on gender equality and an American culture with more rigid notions of gender difference, an agency that Saba Mahmood might consider as inhabiting a particular time and place. Both American men and women in the nineteenth-century were forced to respond, mostly unconsciously, to the forces of democratization, urbanization and industrialization by individually and collectively adapting and submitting to changing gender ideals and, sometimes, resisting them.

Keywords: gender ideology; nineteenth-century United States; pastoral relationship; pedagogical relationship; Saba Mahmood; sexuality



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