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Chapter Summary

One of the fundamental interpretative paradigms for sixteenth- and seventeenth- century Spain is José Antonio Maravall's concept of "la cultura dirigida" or "a guided culture," in which all facets of cultural production were orientated by the elites to depict the glory of the Hapsburg realm. In the case of the state's textual approval process and the Inquisition's system of delaciones and evaluations by calificadores, personal connections often mediated both textual evaluation procedures. Moreover, the Inquisition's imperfect textual control process aided the circulation of proscribed works. The state and diocese's aprobación process approved texts prior to their printing and the Inquisition's assessment process began when works were denounced to it. In the case of Gracián's writings, the Jesuits' desire to avoid controversy about their position on free will likely played a part in his punishment for the publication of El Criticón.

Keywords: aprobación; calificadores; delaciones; El Criticón; Gracián; la cultura dirigida; seventeenth century Spain; Spanish Inquisition; textual approval process



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