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Chapter Summary

Transition processes take a long time. We have witnessed in the past 20 years that democracies grow slowly in the Caucasus. The old Caucasian culture, the linguistic and religious diversity of the Caucasus, identify it as a region where many have been able in the past to live together, though not always in peace. The process of nation building started on the level of ethnicity, rather than on the level of state building, since the Caucasus until the Russian Empire conquered it, formed several kingdoms, principalities, khanates, and ethnic territory governed by clans. The clan culture, the culture of nepotism, and the aspects of closed society in the Caucasus, make it more difficult to introduce transparency and to appoint the best people to jobs.

Keywords: Caucasus; clan culture; Russian empire; state building; transition processes



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