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Recapitulation of Ideas: Christianity As Reflected in Riḍ̣ā's Fatwās

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Chapter Summary

This chapter discusses , Riḍā's answers to the Danish missionary Alfred Nielsen represented his only reaction to queries directly sent by an active missionary in the Middle East. It encounters the name of the Coptic lawyer Akhnūkh Fanūs , who sent Riḍā a long message in which he discussed the differences between some Qurʾānic narratives and their equivalents in the Old Testament. In the minds of one of Riḍā's readers there were some theological problems as to the narratives on the nuzūl (descending) of Jesus before the end of the world. In the Gulf region, there were slave-holding areas even until the 1950s, despite official out-lawing of the slave trade. In their writings, missionaries in Kuwait and Bahrain were critical of the institution of slavery. In 1932, Riḍā received a question concerning the miḥrāb in the mosque and its similarity with the altar in the church.

Keywords: Akhnūkh Fanūs; Jesus; Kuwait; Old Testament; Qurʾānic narratives; Riḍās



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