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Chapter Summary

The concluding chapter of the book offers an important example of Muslim-Christian contact in the modern age : al-Manār's views of Christianity, its founder's relations with his fellow Arab Christians and his responses to Christian missionary writings on Islam. Riḍā clearly proclaimed his religious and political doctrines with all the fervour of a Muslim scholar and activist. Riḍā's ignorance of Western languages did not prevent him from proving the authenticity of Islam. Al-Manār's anti-missionary polemics contain indirect responses to the belittling remarks of Europeans about Eastern civilisation and Islam. Riḍā's Arabic edition of the Gospel of Barnabas inspired several translations in several languages, such as Urdu, Persian, and Indonesian. It has made a major impact on a generation of anti-Christian polemical writers, especially in Pakistan, and was found to be a useful weapon in the hands of many Arab and Indian Muslim writers in their resistance to Christian missionary efforts.

Keywords: al-Manār; Arab Christians; Islam; Riḍā



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