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NGOs And Multilateral Diplomatic Conferences

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Chapter Summary

This chapter explores the evolution of the multilateral conference as a mechanism for sectoral international lawmaking with NGO participation and its transformation into a forum for multi-sectoral 'stakeholder dialogue' and norm implementation through PPPs. It explores how UN structural limitations contributed to the development of the diplomatic conference for addressing environmental and cross sectoral global problems. Then, the chapter examines how conferences afforded NGOs and other non-state actors access to conventional lawmaking processes and thus, influence, indirectly or directly, on the formulation of treaty and 'soft' law. It studies legal contributions by NGOs to convention negotiations at the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) and to the most important treaty that resulted, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol and legal effects. Further, the chapter traces the development of 'partnerships' in UN conferences.

Keywords: global civil society (GCS); international criminal law; international environmental law; international human security law; international lawmaking; Kyoto Protocol; multilateral diplomatic conferences; NGOs; UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED); UNFCCC



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