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Chapter Summary

Wallachia and Moldavia are among the last medieval states to have claimed a place on the European map. This may be explained by the specific features that eastern areas of the continent displayed after 1000. This land was first and foremost the area where the Byzantine, Romanian and the Slav civilizations met. The geographical layout of states at 1247 represented and still represents a subject of much debate in Romanian historiography. The political evolution of the area south of the Carpathians after 1247 is just as blurry. Mongol pressure persisted. Two major attacks occurred in 1260-1261 and 1285-1293, with the Hungarian kingdom a direct target. The Mongol expeditions in 1285-1293 further eroded the power of the Hungarian king. The urbanization of Wallachia also benefited from the existence of some positive factors, but also encountered others that inhibited its growth.

Keywords: Byzantine; Carpathians; European map; Hungarian king; Moldavia; Romanian; urbanization of Wallachia



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